Rola bakterii autochtonicznych w mobilizacji i immobilizacji metali na terenach pokopalnianych górnictwa uranowego na Dolnym Śląsku

Repozytorium Centrum Otwartej Nauki

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dc.contributor.advisor Skłodowska, Aleksandra Mielnicki, Sebastian 2018-01-23T00:05:15Z 2018-01-23T00:05:15Z 2017-11-06
dc.description.abstract Uranium mining in South West Poland lasted between 1948 and 1973. During this time at different sites surrounding cities such as Kowary, Radoniow or Grzmiaca, localized in Lower Silesian voivodship, 757 tons of pure uranium was exploited. This process has left hazardous residues such as heaps of uranium low-grade ore or waters flowing out from closed adits in the Lower Silesia region. Both are potentially danger for the surrounding environment because of their heavy metals content. It is widely known that important factors for metals mobilization are physical factors, such as pH, redox potential or ionic strength as well as chemical form of metals occurrence. It is worth to remember, that except physical and chemical properties, biotic factors play huge role in metals transformation. Among them activity of microorganisms is one of the most important because of their wide adaptive potential to the extreme environments (e.g. high concentration of heavy metals) as well as capabilities to use metals as an energy source or sole electrons acceptors. This dissertation characterized two separate environments created as a result of uranium mining activity in the Lower Silesia region. Firstly, waste heaps at mining and boreholes sites were characterized. Preliminary results showed that uranium concentration at examined sites was between 112.8 and 2986.0 mg •kg-1 d.w. (of dry weight), exceptionally reaching 11 000 mg U • kg-1 d.w. Due to high heavy metals concentration in the heaps, two groups of indigenous microorganisms, known as important mobilizers of heavy metals, were isolated: (i) sulfur oxidizing bacteria active in neutral pH and (ii) iron (II) oxidizing bacteria active in acidic pH. Both types of stable consortia were isolated from 4 out of 5 examined environments, which were heaps from: Grzmiaca, Kromnow, and small and large heaps in Radoniow. Secondly, microbial mats growing in water outflow in adit 19A of “Podgorze” mine were examined. Elemental analysis of those mats showed high capabilities to the heavy metals retention, such as 13 541 mg As • kg-1 d.w., 366 mg U • kg-1 d.w., 1 725 mg Mn • kg-1 d.w. or 7 173 mg Fe • kg-1 d.w. Considering these results, further experiments were focused on bioremediation and self-purification features of microbial mats. For this purpose: (i) mats morphology and biodiversity were characterized, (ii) their abilities for sorption and desorption of AsO2-, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and UO22+ ions were tested, (iii) arsenate, iron (III) and sulfate reducing bacteria (AsRB, FeRB and SRB, respectively) consortia were isolated and characterized, (iv) new strain Raoultella sp. SM1 capable of effective iron (III) reduction and precipitation of uranium in anaerobic conditions was isolated. It was proved that microbial mats immobilized heavy metals in the passive processes of biosorption as well as in active processes performed by microorganisms reducing arsenic, iron and sulfur compounds. In this dissertation, it was proved that environments created as a result of uranium mining in the Lower Silesia are inhabited by indigenous microorganisms, which are both: heavy metals mobilizers and immobilizers. Leaving those environments uncontrolled and the unprotected can lead to the pollution of the environment in the future. However, indigenous microorganisms cannot be considered only as a potential threat for the environment. They can be very useful in biotechnological process, such as bioremediation and bioleaching of heavy metals deposited in uranium heaps. Stable consortia isolated from heaps and microbial mats as well as microorganisms able to uranium precipitation (such as Raoultella sp. SM1) could be used for heavy metals removal and recovery. Every stage of this process from heavy metals mobilization to their precipitation and recovery can be carried out with selected microorganisms. What is more, those organisms could be used in construction of protective barriers against heavy metals leaking for bioremediation area. Performed analyses are the beginning of bioremediation strategy development. Conducted experiments showed huge potential of indigenous microorganisms in purification processes but further studies are needed to develop the whole technology of uranium heaps efficient bioremediation. Detailed investigation of bioleaching, sorption and desorption effectiveness in different pH as well as effective methods of indigenous microorganisms cultivation have to be carried out.
dc.language.iso pl
dc.rights 10daysAccess
dc.subject Górnictwo uranowe
dc.subject Polska południowo-zachodnia
dc.subject maty mikrobiologiczne
dc.subject Raoultella sp. SM1
dc.subject bioremediacja
dc.subject biosorpcja
dc.subject metale
dc.subject Uranium mining
dc.subject South-West Poland
dc.subject microbial mats
dc.subject Raoultella sp. SM1
dc.subject bioremediation
dc.subject biosorption
dc.subject metals
dc.title Rola bakterii autochtonicznych w mobilizacji i immobilizacji metali na terenach pokopalnianych górnictwa uranowego na Dolnym Śląsku
dc.title.alternative Rola bakterii autochtonicznych w mobilizacji i immobilizacji metali na terenach pokopalnianych górnictwa uranowego na Dolnym Śląsku
dc.title.alternative The role of indigenous bacteria in mobilization and immobilization of metals in uranium post-mining sites in Lower Silesia
dc.type info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis
dc.contributor.department Wydział Biologii 2018-02-19
dc.identifier.apd 18056
dc.description.osid 96248

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